Japan has a history that dates back thousands of years. Scientists believe the Japanese people descended from many groups that migrated to the islands from other parts of Asia, including China and Korea. As early as 4500 B.C., the Japanese islands were inhabited by fishermen, hunters and farmers. The early culture was known as “Jomon,” which meant “cord pattern.” That’s because the people made pottery decorated with rope-like designs. Scientists believe a caucasian race called the “Ainu” were the first inhabitants of what is now Japan. The Ainu still exist today, mostly in the northernmost islands of Japan called “Hokkaido.” The next major Japanese cultural change occured about 200 B.C. The people were known as “Yayoi.” The Yayoi were mostly farmers. Scientists believe the present-day Japanese closely resemble the Yayoi in appearance and language.
War played a central part in the history of Japan. Warring clans controlled much of the country. A chief headed each clan; made up of related families. The chiefs were the ancestors of Japan’s imperial family. The wars were usually about “land.” Only 20% of the land was fit for farming. The struggle for control of that land eventually gave rise to the Samurai.
One of the important dates in the history of the Japanese warring class is 660 B.C. That’s when, according to legend, Jimmu Tenno became head of a confederation of warlike clans. Tenno was known as “The Divine Warrior.” He led his people from Kyushu to the Kinki region and conquered the people there. Tenno settled in the area of Yamato. This eventually gave rise to the Yamato dynasty and state. The leaders of Yamato believed themselves to be of divine origin.
The Yamato clans conducted many military campaigns on the Asian mainland. The targets included Korea and China. These campaigns led to the importation of Korean and Chinese culture, technology and martial arts. Legend says that Emperor Keiko was the first person with the title of “Shogun.” The word meant “Barbarian-subduing General.” Legend continues that Keiko had a son named “Prince Yamato.” He was cunning, fearless, strong and a great martial artist. Many believe that Yamato was a role model for future Samurai.
Ancient Yayoi warriors developed weapons, armour and a code during the ensuing centuries that became the centerpiece for the Japanese Samurai. Early weapons included bows, arrows and swords. Armour included a helmet that protected head and neck, a breasplate that protected the chest, arm and shoulder protectors, and a belly wrap. Later armour included protection for the legs and thighs.
Armour changed as the type of battles changed. A big change occured in the 5th century when horses were introduced to Japan. Another change occured in the 15th century because of the constancy of war and the introduction of guns into battle. The code developed from the Chinese concept of the virtues of warriors doing battle to the Samurai code of chivalry known as Kyuba no michi (“The Way of Horse and Bow”) to the Bushido (“Way of the Warrior”) code.